Microbiology


PHILOSOPHY OF THE MICROBIOLOGY DEPARTMENT

Microbiology is a branch of biology that specializes in the study of organisms that are so tiny that they cannot be seen with the unaided eye. The organisms studied under the microscope include the bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and the non-cellular entities called viruses. Much of what is known about microorganisms came through the pioneer work of Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek in the 16th century which eventually led to the discovery of microscope (a major instrument for studying them). Sadly, many people tend to associate microorganisms with infections that they cause such as Ebola, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, syphilis, as well as spoilage or poisoning or intoxication, and water contamination. However, an even greater number of microorganisms play important roles in the environment such as nutrients cycling in nature and in bioremediation. Bacteria and algae play important roles in photosynthesis: a food and oxygen generating process that is critical to life on earth. Humans and other animals depend on bacteria in their intestine for digestion and synthesis of vitamins that their body need. Microbes are involved in many industrial products such as enzymes, antibiotics, alcohols, acetone, glycerin, yoghurt, cheese, bread and vinegar to mention but a few. Interestingly, though a few cause diseases, they still help produce products that can help curtail these harmful effects. A practical knowledge of microbes is therefore necessary for medicine and related health science and in the industries.

The philosophy of the program therefore is to equip our students with practical skills and elaborate knowledge base that will enable them to visualize and work with microorganisms in the industry, environmental sector, hospitals and health organizations. The program shall also prepare students for post graduate studies by providing them with the necessary pre-requisite. Given the importance of molecular biology and genetic engineering in plants, animals and microorganisms, the program will also equip our students with basic skills that are essential to modern microbiology and biotechnology. Finally, the program aims to produce students that are well equipped to succeed in the modern world. 

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE DEPARTMENT

The aims and objectives of the Microbiology department are:

  1. To produce students who are conscious of laboratory safety and knowledge in the handling, culturing and identification of micro-organisms.
  2. To inculcate the idea of self-reliance to our graduates by training them to be skillful in the applied areas of microbiology that would equip them to set up their own businesses.
  3. To equip the students with relevant knowledge and practical skills for basic research work, leading to technological advancement in Nigeria and the world at large.
  4. To provide service courses to students of other departments and faculties.
  5. To also provide services to the University Community and her immediate neighbours.

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN MICROBIOLOGY

There are many employment opportunities for graduates of Microbiology. The opportunities range from Animal/Plant Pathologists, Medical Laboratory Directors/Staff, and Quality Control Officers in food and beverage industries, Nigerian Standard Organizations, Environmental Scientists, Consultants, Research Fellows, and Lecturers. Others include being staff of National Food and Drug Enforcement Agencies (NAFDAC), Quality Control Agencies, Hospitals, Oil and Oil Servicing Companies, Water Corporations, Ministry of Environment, Paint Manufacturing Companies, Carpet Manufacturing Companies and Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Companies and self-employment. They can also be employed in sewage plants, pharmaceutical companies or be self-employed.

THE STUDY OF MICROBIOLOGY

The study of microbiology began with the discovery/invention of the light microscope by Leuwenhoek in the 17th century.  The science of microbiology has evolved a great deal since then.  It has impacted positively in industry, medicine, agriculture/environment, to mention but a few. Given the ever expanding role microorganisms play in these areas and much more, its study is now divided into the following areas listed below. However, it is important to note that our programme will emphasize the importance of microorganisms in these areas.

AREAS OR FIELDS OF STUDY IN MICROBIOLOGY

(i)         Medical Microbiology

This is an aspect of Microbiology that deals with the identification of causative agents of diseases, infection and immunity, spread of diseases, and their treatments. Subdivisions of Medical microbiology include Medical Bacteriology, Medical Mycology, and Medical Virology, and Parasitology and Immunobiology.

(ii)        Public Health Microbiology

This is the study of microorganisms involved in the sanitation and sanitary practices like wastes management, sewage treatment and modern methods of water treatment. It also deals with epidemiology of infectious diseases.

(iii)       Environmental Microbiology

This is the study of microorganisms and their interactions with the environment. This involves ecology of microorganisms, their harmful activities as well as their beneficial roles in biodegradation and pollution control, biogeochemical cycling of elements and bioremediation of our environment and petroleum microbiology.

(iv)   Industrial Microbiology

This is the study of microorganisms and their roles in the industries. That is, the manipulation of microbiology for financial benefits. These roles include microbial products of industrial importance like beverages, enzymes, amino acids, hormone transformation, vinegar and other fermentation products, production of Baker’s yeast, food and feed yeasts and production of other foods like single cell protein from microorganisms. It also includes an aspect of biotechnology which is the use of microorganism or their process to produce useful products for human use.

(v)   Pharmaceutical Microbiology

This is the study of the chemistry and microbiology of pharmaceutical products. It includes the principles and mechanisms of antibiotic sensitivity, resistance, mode of action and assay of antimicrobial agents. It also involves the sanitation, preservation as   well as quality control of drugs, vaccines, and the skills of prolonging the shelf life of pharmaceutical products. Though a branch of industrial microbiology, it is expanding to include an aspect of medicinal plant studies.

 

(vi)    Food Microbiology

This is the science of the production of foods with the aid of microorganisms. It involves the study of the principle of food preservation, spoilage, study of food borne illnesses, food sanitation and quality assurance to extend the shelf-life of foods.

(vii)   Agricultural Microbiology

This is the study of the science of microbiology and soil fertility. It includes the science of composting, and behaviour of pesticides, biogeochemical cycle, microbial insecticides, agricultural products storage to prevent spoilage, and plant diseases control.

MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND RULES

The following rules have to be observed in order to obtain proper results and for the safety of everybody working in any microbiology laboratory

  1. Laboratory coats must be worn. Any unwanted material like apparels, handbags and briefcases should be kept out of the laboratory.
  2. All microorganisms are assumed pathogenic until when proven otherwise.
  3. Sterilize your working bench by swabbing with ethanol or methylated spirit.
  4. Do not eat, smoke or drink in the laboratory, avoid bringing any food items, reduce talking during practical to minimize contamination of cultures through saliva. Use of GSM phones in the laboratory is prohibited.
  5. Do not lick labels, instead use tap water.
  6. Avoid the habit of holding pencils, pen etc. with your lips.
  7. Keep the laboratory bench clear and scrupulously clean by using disinfectant (methylated spirit or absolute alcohol) at the beginning and end of the laboratory period.
  8. Always work in an environment of sterile air by ensuring that a Bunsen flame is burning before you.
  9. Report to the instructor any personal accidents such as cuts, burns, accidental sucking of any form of chemical or culture suspension.
  10. Inoculation needles and loops should be flamed to redness before and after inoculation. This precaution minimizes the contamination of your cultures as well as the working area.
  11. Keep test-tube cultures in test-tube racks; never lay them on the bench top.
  12. Label all cultures incubated properly with your name (using masking tape), the nature of the specimen and date.
  13. Used cultures should never be thrown into the dustbin or sink. They should be collected and destroyed by autoclaving
  14. Wash your hands thoroughly before leaving the laboratory
  15. All animals used for experimental work must be burnt and buried at the end of such experiments.
  16. If you smell any gas leakage don’t panic, rather report to the technologist or staff available immediately.

OBJECTIVE OF THE PROGRAMME

The undergraduate programme is designed:

  1. To create a sense of self-reliance and confidence in the students.
  2. To equip them to be job creators.
  • To furnish them with knowledge and practical skills necessary in a competitive labour market.
  1. To provide them with a knowledge base essential for research work should they decide to attend postgraduate school.

From the above objective, it is clear that the programme is sufficiently flexible to permit a student to complete his/her studies in four years. Students shall be assigned to “common” courses that will be prescribed in the Department from time to time in addition to major subject area courses. Elective shall also be also prescribed. Students participating particularly in the mandatory 6 months’ student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) within the duration of the programme are exposed to practical skills in the field of study. The programme combines theoretical and practical principles. It also offers sufficient background and depth to enable a graduate to undertake post-graduate studies in his/her discipline or related fields.

ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS (B.Sc. MICROBIOLOGY)

UTME: Minimum of five credits at Ordinary Level in GCE, SSCE, or their equivalent examinations. The credits should include Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and English Language. Combination of 5 credit passes at not more than two sittings from either WAEC or NECO or both as the case may be, are also allowed.

DIRECT ENTRY

  1. Three Advanced Level Passes in Biology and Chemistry plus credits at Ordinary Level as specified in (i) above.
  2. OND, NCE, in related subject plus credit at Ordinary Level as in (i) above
  3. Registered Nurses with double qualification i.e. general Nursing Certificate and Midwifery or Psychiatry or its equivalent. This is in addition to UME requirement.

REGISTRATION

Candidates shall normally complete their registration formalities at the stipulated time as prescribed by the University and shall therefore renew their registration at the beginning of each Semester/Session until the completion of their programme. Candidates may however withdraw/suspend his/her course after due satisfaction of the University regulation. All candidates shall be required to register for and take the approved combination of courses. During the programme, candidates must satisfy the University requirements in respect of four year and three-year courses as stipulated by this regulation. Elective courses are those that are offered within or outside the department that the student may select for the purpose of fulfilling the minimum requirement for award of degree. Prerequisites are courses, which must be taken and passed before the related course at higher level is taken.

ACADEMIC GOOD STANDING REQUIREMENTS

To be in good academic standing in the department, a student must obtain a cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of at least 1.50 at the end of each academic session. A new entrant (Fresher) to the degree programme who obtains a Grade Point Average (GPA) of less than 1.50 at the end of the first session in the university shall be advised to withdraw from the programme which he/she had registered for. However, a returning student (either at the 200, 300 or 400 level) whose CGPA is less than 1.50 at the end of an academic session shall be placed on "Probation'" on his/her programme for one academic session. A probationary student who obtains at least 1.50 CGPA at the end of a probationary year shall be allowed to continue his/her degree programme. But a probationary student who is unable to earn at least 1.50 CGPA at the end of the probationary year shall be advised to withdraw from the degree programme in which he/she had registered for.

 

 

COURSE OUTLINE

YEAR ONE: FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE

CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT

   UNITS

GST 111

Communication in English I

2

GST 112

Logic, Philosophy and Human Existence

2

GST 113

Nigerian People and Culture

2

GST 114

Introduction to Computer Science

2

BSM 111

Life and Teachings of Christ (The Four Gospels)

1

CDS 115

Community Development Service

1

BIO  111

General Biology I

3

MTH 111

General Mathematics I

3

CHM 111

General Chemistry I

2

CHM 112

General Chemistry I (Lab)

1

PHY 111

General Physics I

2

PHY 112

General Physics I (Lab)

1

 

Total

22

 

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE

CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT       

UNITS

GST 121

Use of Library, Study Skills and Information

Communication Technology (ICT)

       2

GST 122

Communication in English II

       2

GST 125

Citizenship Education

       2

BSM121

Christian Awareness

       1

MTH121

General Mathematics II

       3

BIO  121

General Biology II

       3

CHE 121

General Chemistry II

       2

CHE 122

General Chemistry II (Lab)

       1

PHY 121

General Physics II

       2

PHY 122

General Physics II (Lab)

       1

 

Total

     19

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

YEAR TWO

FIRST SEMSTER

COURSE

CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT

UNITS

GST   213

Application of Computer in Science

     2

GST   214

History and Philosophy of Science

     2

CDS  211

Community Development Service

     1

BSM  211

Creation and Kingdom

     1

BCH  211

General Biochemistry

     2

MCB 211

General Microbiology

     2

MCB 212

Basic Techniques in Microbiology

     2

MCB 213

Mycology

     2

CHE  212

Physical Chemistry II

     2

BIO   211

Introduction to Genetics/Cell Physiology

     2

BIOSTA 211

Statistics for Biologists

     2

 

Total

   20

 

 

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE

CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT

UNITS

GST 221

Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution   

     2

GST 222

Introduction to Entrepreneurship Skills

     2

BSM 221

Prophets and Wisdom

     1

CSC 231

Scientific Programming

     2

CHM 221

Analytical Chemistry

     2

MCB221

General Microbiology II

     2

BIO  221

General Physiology

     2

BIO  222

Biological Techniques

     2

BCH 221

General Biochemistry II

     2

BIOSTA 221

Statistics for Biologists

     2

 

Total

    19

 

YEAR THREE

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE

CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT

UNITS

GST 311

Introduction to Entrepreneurial Studies

      2

MCB 312

Immunology and Immunochemistry

      3

MCB 313

Food Microbiology

      2

MCB 314

Environmental Microbiology

      2

ZOO  315

Principles of Parasitology

      2

MCB 316

Soil Microbiology

      2

MCB 317

Microbial Genetics/ Molecular Biology

      3

MCB 318

Introductory Virology

     2

 

Total

    18

 

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT UNITS

MCB 321

Industrial Training

6

 

Total

 6

 

YEAR FOUR

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE

CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT

UNITS

 

MCB 411

Microbial Physiology and Metabolism

     3

 

MCB 412

Seminar in Microbiology & Biotechnology

     2

 

MCB 413

Microbial Ecology and Bacterial Diversity

     2

 

MCB 415

Pathogenic Microbiology

     2

 

MCB 416

Medical Virology and Tissue Culture

     3

 

 

 

 

ELECTIVES:   Choose any two

 

COURSE

CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT UNITS

 

ZOO 419

Basic Entomology

     2

 

BOT 411

Plant Pathology

     2

 

BOT 412

Plant & Environmental Pollution Monitoring

     2

 

BOT 413

Introduction to Mushroom growing Technology

     2

 

 

Total

     16

 

 

 

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE

CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT UNITS

MCB 422

Industrial Field Trip

      2

MCB 423

Analytical Microbiology/Quality Control

      3

MCB 424

Industrial Microbiology

      3

MCB 425

Principles of Epidemiology/Public Health

      2

MCB 426

Research Project

      6

MCB 427

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

      3

 

ELECTIVES:   Choose any one

COURSE

CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT UNITS

BCH 427

Enzymology

       2

BCH 422

Industrial Biochemistry

       2

 

Total

      21

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

 

GST 111: COMMUNICATION IN ENGLISH (2 Units)

Effective communication and writing in English, Language skills, writing of essay answers, Comprehension, Sentence construction, Outlines and paragraphs, Collection and organization of materials and logical presentation, Punctuation.

GST 112: LOGIC PHILOSOPHY AND HUMAN EXISTENCE (2 Units)

A brief survey of the main branches of Philosophy Symbolic Logic Special symbols in symbolic Logic-conjunction, negation, affirmation, disjunction, equivalent and conditional statements law of tort; The method of deduction using rules of inference and bi-conditionals qualification theory; Types of discourse, Nature or arguments, Validity and soundness; Techniques for evaluating arguments; Distinction between inductive and deductive inferences; etc. (Illustrations will be taken from familiar texts, Including literature materials, Novels, Law reports and newspaper publications).

GST 113: NIGERIAN PEOPLES AND CULTURE (2 Units)

Study of Nigerian history, culture and arts in pre-colonial times, Nigerian’s perception of his world, Culture areas of Nigeria and their characteristics, Evolution of Nigeria as a political unit, Indigene/settler phenomenon, Concepts of trade, Economic self-reliance, Social justice, Individual and national development, Norms and values, Negative attitudes and conducts (cultism and related vices), Re-orientation of moral Environmental problems.

CDS 111:        COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT SERVICE (1 UNIT)

At the end of this course, the student should be able to: Know the basic concepts in community development; Define community and community development; explain the scope of community development; explain the following concepts:

  1. i) Felt-need; ii) Directive approach; iii) Non-directive approach; iv) Integrated approach; v) Team approach; vi) Matching-grant approach.

Student should also be able to: Understand the role of community development in national development; Define development as a holistic and normative phenomenon involving everybody in the nation; Explain the importance of UNESCO’s involvement in community development; Assess community development as a socio-economic and political programme.     

BIO 111: GENERAL BIOLOGY I (3 Units)

Cell structure and organization: Functions of cellular organelles; Diversity; Characteristics and Classification of living things; General reproduction; Inter-relationship of organisms; Heredity and evolution; Elements of ecology and types of habitats.

MTH 111: GENERAL Mathematics 1–Algebra and Trigonometry (3Units)

Elementary set theory, subsets, union, intersection, complements, Venn diagrams, real numbers, integers, rational and irrational numbers, mathematical induction, real sequences and series, theory of quadratic equations, binomial theorem, complex numbers, algebra of complex numbers, the Argand diagram; De Moivre’s theorem, nth roots of unity, circular measure, trigonometric functions of angles of any magnitude, addition and factor formulae.

CHE 111: GENERAL CHEMISTRY I (3 Units)

Atoms, molecules, atomic structure, periodic table and chemical equations; Quantum theory of the atom; Electronic configuration of the element, periodicity of physical properties of the element, types of chemical equations( molecular, complete ionic and net ionic) and calculation with formulae and equation, types of chemical reactions, chemical bonding, shapes of covalent molecules, properties of solids, liquids and gases; Behaviour of gases, solution of solids and liquids and gases in liquids, colligative properties of solutions, equilibria and thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, radioactivity.

CHE 112: GENERAL CHEMISTRY I (Lab) (1 Unit)

Determination of the densities of solids and liquids, empirical and molecular formulae, separation of binary mixtures, gravimetric determination of the number of molecules of water, of hydration in a salt; Single and double replacement reactions, writing Lewis structure for atoms, ions, molecules and products of chemical reactions, calculations of energies of excitation and determination of the excited state of atoms by the application of Bohr’s theory of the hydrogen atoms and quantum chemistry.

PHY 111: General Physics I – MECHANICS (3 Units)

Space and time; frames of reference; units and dimensions; kinematics; fundamental laws of mechanics, statics and dynamics; Galilean invariance; universal gravitation; work and energy; rotational dynamics and angular momentum; conservation laws.

PHY 112: General Physics Laboratory I (1 Unit)

This introductory course emphasizes quantitative measurements; the treatment of measurement errors; and graphical analysis. A variety of experimental techniques will be employed. The experiments include study of meters, the oscilloscope, mechanical systems, electrical and mechanical resonant systems, light, heat, viscosity, etc., covered in PHY 101, PHY 102 and PHY 103.

GST 121: USE OF LIBRARY, STUDY SKILLS AND INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) (2 Units)

Brief history of libraries, Library and education, University libraries and other types of libraries, Study skills (reference services); Types of library materials, using library resources including e-learning, e-materials; etc., understanding library catalogues (card, OPAC, etc.) and classification, Copyright and its \implications, Database resources, Bibliographic citations and referencing. Development of modern ICT, Hardware technology Software technology, input devices, Storage devices, Output devices, Communication and internet services, Word processing skills (typing, etc).

GST 122: COMMUNICATION IN ENGLISH II (2 Units)

Logical presentation of papers, Phonetics, Instruction on lexis, Art of public speaking and oral communication, Figures of speech, Précis, Report writing.

GST 125: CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION (2 Units)

Citizenship Education as a general study course aims at equipping students with information on their rights, duties and obligations as citizen to themselves, their neighbours and community or nation as a whole. It also includes discussions and some current medical/health, environment and equips students with some means of preventing, controlling and overcoming the impediments to these.

MTH 121: GENERAL MATHEMATICS II (3 Units)

Geometric representation of vectors in 1-3 dimensions; components; direction cosines; addition; scalar; multiplication of vectors; linear independence; scalar and vector products of two vectors; differentiation and integration of vectors in response to a scalar variable; two-dimensional co-ordinate geometry; straight lines; circles; parabola; ellipse; hyperbola; tangents; normal’s; kinematics of a particle, components of velocity and acceleration of a particle moving in a plane; force; momentum; laws of motion; under gravity; projectiles; resisted vertical motion; elastic string; simple pendulum impulse; Impact of two smooth sphere, and of a sphere on a smooth sphere.

BIO 121: GENERAL BIOLOGY II (3 Units)

A generalized survey of the plants and animal kingdom based mainly on the study of similarities and differences in external feature Ecological adaptations of these forms.

CHE 121: GENERAL CHEMISTRY II (2 Units)

Pre-requisite: CHE 111

 

Historical survey of the development and importance of organic chemistry, nomenclature and classes of organic compounds; Homologous series, functional group, isolation and purification of organic compounds, qualitative and quantitative organic chemistry, stereochemistry, determination of the structure of organic compounds, electronic theory in organic chemistry, saturated hydrocarbons, unsaturated hydrocarbons and their reactions, the chemistry of selected metals and non- metals, electrochemistry.

CHE 122: GENERAL CHEMISTRY II (LAB) (1 Unit)

Examination of the physical properties of (physical state, appearance, odour, ignition test) of organic compounds, purification of organic compounds by crystallisation and distillation, the use of melting point and boiling point as criteria of purification solubility test (in hot and cold water in either). Detection of elements present in organic compounds, detection of functional groups presents in organic compounds; A sequence of chemical reaction involving copper.

PHY l21: General Physics II (2 Units)

Electrostatics; conductors and currents; dielectrics; magnetic field and induction; Maxwell’s equations; electromagnetic oscillations and waves; applications; Molecular treatment of properties of matter; elasticity; Hooke’s law; Young’s shear and bulk module; hydrostatics; pressure; buoyancy; Archimedes’ principles; hydrodynamics; streamlines; Bernooulli and continuity equations; turbulence; Reynold’s number; viscosity; laminar flow; Poiseuille’s equation; surface tension; adhesion; cohesion; capillarity; drops and bubbles. Temperature; the zeroth law of thermodynamics; heat; gas laws; laws of thermodynamics; kinetic theory of gases; applications.

PHY 122: GENERAL PHYSICS LABORATORY II (1 Units)

This introductory course emphasizes quantitative measurements, the treatment of measurement errors and graphical analysis. A variety of experimental techniques will be employed. The experiments include study of meters, the oscilloscope, mechanical system, electrical and mechanical resonant systems, light, heat, viscosity, etc., covered in PHY 101, PHY 102 and PHY 103.

GST 213: APPLICATION OF COMPUTER IN SCIENCE (2 Units)

Introduction to personal computer applications; Overview of basic computer hardware and system software concepts; Projects include using various application software packages’ such as: word processing, spreadsheets, electronic e-mail, and computer network browsers.

GST 214: HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE (2 Units)

Man – his origin and nature, Man and his cosmic environment, Scientific methodology, Science and technology in the society and service of man, Renewable and non-renewable resources – man and his energy resources, Environmental effects of chemical plastics, Textiles, Wastes and other material, Chemical and radiochemical hazards; Introduction to the various areas of science and technology; Elements of environmental studies.

BCH 211: GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY (3 Units)

Pre-requisites: CHE 111,122

 

Molar, molal, normal, saturated, percentage and stock solution review, including their preparation Interconversions and series dilutions. Acidity, alkalinity, Ph, ka, pka values and their effects on cellular activities. Henderson Hasselbalch equation. Methods of cell fractionation. Structures and functions of major cell components. Biomarkers of cellular organelles. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

MCB 211: GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY I (3 Units)

An inheritance to bacteria; Viruses; Fungi and blue green algae; Major differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes; The morphology, reproduction, and life cycles of some representatives of each group and their possible inter-relationships; Their distribution in nature; beneficial and harmful effects on man and animals; Laboratory methods involved in the isolation, culture, characterization and identification of micro-organisms of medical and industrial importance.

MCB 212:  BASIC TECHNIQUES IN MICROBIOLOGY (2 Units)

Safety in the microbiological laboratory; Common instruments used in the laboratory and their principles; Use and care of microscope; Culture media preparation and sterilization; other sterilization techniques; techniques for isolation of microorganisms in the air; water and contaminated environment; smear preparation and staining methods; field sampling techniques for soil; water; sediment; etc. Critical control points in industries.

MCB 213: MYCOLOGY (2 Units)

A generalized survey of the fungal kingdom based on the study of similarities and differences in their somatic and reproductive structures; somatic structures of fungi; modifications of some somatic structures; reproduction in fungi (sexual and asexual); concept of heterokaryogamy; systematic classification of fungi; the morphology, reproduction and life cycles of some representatives of each class of fungi

CHE 211:  BASIC INORGANIC CHEMISTRY II (2 Units)

Pre-requisite: CHE 111, 121

 

Chemistry of the first row transition metals, introduction to co- ordination chemistry including treatment of crystal field theory comparative chemistry of the following elements: (a) Ga, In, Ti (b) Ge, Sn, Pb (c)As, Sn, Bi (d) Se, Te, Po; and their biochemical significance; Introduction to organometalic chemistry; The role of metals in biochemical system.

CHE 212: PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II (2 Units)

Pre-requisite: CHE 111

 

Kinetic theory of gases, behaviour of real gases, the laws of thermodynamics, entropy and free energy, reaction and phase equilibrium; reaction rate and reaction rate law for gases where the concentration of the reactant are the same, mechanism and theories of uni-molecular reactions, Photochemical reactions; The concepts of reversibility and irreversibility, free energy derivations; Maxwell relations, Gibbs functions; Equilibrium thermodynamics (ideal solutions and vapour fugacity concepts); Properties of electrolytes (colligative properties); Phase rule; Introduction to statistical Thermodynamics.

BIO 211: INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS/ CELL PHYSIOLOGY I (3 Units)

Fundamental principles of genetics, Mendel’s laws; Heritable and non-heritable characteristics; Genetics of sex, Concept of dominance and recesiveness; Nature of genetic material variation, Variation in genome number and structure; Functional definition of gene; Genetic changes; Mutation; Sex linkage; Quantitative inheritance; Probability and test of goodness of fit.

GST 221: PEACE STUDIES AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION (2 Units)

Basic Concepts in peace studies and conflict resolution, Peace as vehicle of unity and development, Conflict issues, Types of conflict, e.g. Ethnic/religious/political/economic conflicts, Root causes of conflicts and violence in Africa, Indigene/settler phenomenon, Peace – building, Management of conflict and security; Elements of peace studies and conflict resolution, Developing a culture of peace, Peace mediation and peace-keeping, Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR); Dialogue/arbitration in conflict resolution, Role of international organizations in conflict resolution, e.g. ECOWAS, African Union, United Nations, etc.

GST 222: INTRODUCTION TO ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS (2 Units)

Introduction to entrepreneurship and new venture creation; Entrepreneurship in theory and practice; Introduction The opportunity, Forms of business, Staffing, Marketing and the new venture; Determining capital requirements, raising capital; Financial planning and management; Starting a new business, Feasibility studies; Innovation; Legal Issues; Insurance and environmental considerations; Possible business opportunities in Nigeria.

MCB 221: GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY II (3 Units)

Pre-requisite: MCB 211

 

The problems and techniques involved in the systematic classification of bacteria; viruses; protozoa and fungi; blue-green algae and eukaryotic algae; Introduction to microbial variation and heredity characteristics; studies on the biological and serological reactions of micro-organisms; the cycle of matter with emphasis on cycles of carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen and sulphur in nature.

BIO 221: GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY (2 Units)

Physical and chemical processes in basic plants and animal physiology; Basic elements of respiration, photosynthesis, transportation or circulation; Reproduction, germination, growth hormones and enzymology.

BIO 222:   BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES (2 Units)

Preparation of microscope slides, biological drawings, microtomy, colorimetry, photometry, cytological techniques, chromatography, collection and preservation of biological specimens, herbarium techniques, experimental design.

BCH 221 GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY II   (3 Units)

Pre-requisites: CHE 111,211

 

Structure, nomenclature (IUPAC/IUB), classification, chemistry, reactions and functions of amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, nucleotides, extraction, isolation, purification, characterisation and biochemical application of these Biomolecule (highlights: effects of acids and alkali on the hydrolysis of nucleic acids); Amino acids as building blocks for proteins, special amino peptides, essential amino acids, covalent backbones of amino acids, primary to tertiary structures of proteins; Denaturation (reversible and irreversible); Storages, energy, physiological and structural saccharides; Non-reducing sugars; Types of fatty acids iodine, saponification, per oxidation and acid numbers of fatty acids and fats.

BIOSTA 221: STATISTICS FOR AGRIC AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (3 Units)

Use of statistical methods in biology and agriculture; frequency distributions; law of probability; the binomial; Poisson, and Normal Probability distribution; Estimation and test of hypothesis; Design of simple agricultural and biological experiments; Analysis of correlation; Contingency tables; Some parametric tests.

GST 312: INTRODUCTION TO ENTREPRENEURSHIP STUDIES (2 Units)

Some of the ventures to be focused upon include the following:  Soap/Detergent; Tooth brushes and Tooth paste making; Photography; Brick, nails, screws making; Dyeing/Textile blocks paste making; Rope making; Plumbing; Vulcanizing; Brewing; Glassware production/Ceramic, production; Paper production; Water treatment/Conditioning/Packaging; Food processing/packaging/preservation; Metal working/Fabrication – Steel and aluminium door and windows; Training industry; Vegetable oil/and Salt extractions; Fisheries/Aquaculture; Refrigeration/Air conditioning; Plastic making; Farming (crop); Domestic Electrical wiring; Radio/TV repairs; Carving; Weaving; Brick laying/making; Bakery; Tailoring; Iron welding; Building drawing; Carpentry; Leather tanning; Interior decoration; Printing; Animal husbandry (Poultry, Piggery, Goat etc); Metal Craft – Blacksmith, Tinsmith etc; Sanitary wares; Vehicle maintenance; Bookkeeping

MCB 312: IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOCHEMISTRY (3 Units)

Pre-requisites: MCB 211, MCB 221

 

Basic concept of the immune response; Structure and properties of antigens; Cellular immunity; Structure, synthesis, properties and classification of immunoglobulins and antibodies; Antigen-antibody interaction; Immunological tolerance; Role of lymphoid tissues and thymus in immunoresponses; Hypersensitivity, immunopathology, autopathology, autoimmunology, tumor and tissue transplantation immunology; The allergic reaction; Immunology; Brief survey of the nature of resistance in plants; Laboratory exercise and modern techniques in immunology, immunochemistry and serology.

MCB 313: FOOD MICROBIOLOGY (3 Units)

The distribution, role and significance of microorganisms in food; Sources of contamination; mode of spread of microorganisms, microbial growth in foods, intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of foods that affect microbial growth; Chemical composition of foods; major microorganisms and factors associated with food spoilage; food hygiene and food preservation; Fermentation methods and application in the industry and in the preparation of traditional African foods; Animal diseases transmissible to man through animal food production; Laboratory methods for microbiological examination of foods; Food poisoning outbreaks and infections.

MCB  314: ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY (3 Units)

Pre requisites: MCB 221

 

Aspects of microorganisms and other organisms of importance in aquatic systems and disposals; Ecology  of microorganisms; Sanitation and sanitary practices as related to everyday life where contamination of oil, water and air may result in the deterioration of the environment and mankind; Soil, water and air pollution; Solid wastes, waste disposal, waste management and rationale for sewage; Modern methods of water and sewage treatment; Water related infections with emphasis on viral, bacterial, protozoan and helminthic diseases; Laboratory exercise in microbiological and chemical examination of water and sewage; Most probable Number (MFN) and membrane filtration (MF) techniques in water analysis; Effluent monitoring.

ZOO 315: PRINCIPLES OF PARASITOLOGY (3 Units)

Evolution of parasitic mode of life; Nature of parasitism in relation to other forms of animal associations; Host-parasitic relationships; Epidemiological studies and control measures of important tropical parasitic diseases and the role of vector in the transmission of these diseases.

MCB  316: SOIL MICROBIOLOGY (3 Units)

Pre-requisites: MCB 221

 

The characteristics of environment; Microbial flora and fauna of soil; Microclimate of the soil and its influence on the biochemical activities of microorganisms; Cycles of carbon; nitrogen and sulphur; Mineral transformation by microorganisms; Ecological and microbial activities in soil; their relationship with the nutrients and the other constituents present in the soil; Nature and characteristics of soil  pathogens; Effects of pesticide on microbial flora and fauna of the soil; Microbiology of wetland soils.

MCB  317: MICROBIAL GENETICS/ MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (3 Units)

Principles of genetic analysis; Plasmids and transposable genetic elements, mutagenesis and DNA repairs; bacteriophage genetics and genetics of Nitrogen fixation; Mechanism and nature of mutation, induction, isolation and characterization of mutants; Genetic recombination in prokaryotes including transformation, transduction, phage conversion and conjugation; Recent techniques in microbial genetics; Chemical coding and expression of genetic information; Fungal genetics; Principles and applications of genetic engineering.

MCB 318: INTRODUCTORY VIROLOGY (3 Units)

General characteristics of plant, animal and bacterial viruses; Viral replication, spread and cytopathic effects; Virus classification, purification and assay; Regulation of lytic development and maintenance of the Lysogenic state in bacteriophages lambda, P22 and 11, single stranded DNA and RNA phage viroids as pathogens.

MCB   411: MICROBIAL PHYSIOLOGY AND METABOLISM (3 Units)

Dynamics of growth; Nutrition and energy metabolism of micro-organism; Effect of physical and chemical factors on growth; Biochemistry of various microbial processes such as transport, regulation and respiration; Biosynthesis of microbial products; Buffer preparation and standardization; Basic separation in microbiology, dialysis, salting out, gel filtration, electrophoresis etc.; Assay techniques for various metabolites including microbial enzymes, acids etc.

MCB   412: SEMINAR IN MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY (2 Units)

Literature Research followed by presentation at a seminar of a scientific topic of microbiological and biotechnological interests; the student is expected to work under the supervision of an academic staff.

MCB  413: MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AND BACTERIAL DIVERSITY (3 Units)

Pre-requisites: MCB 211, MCB 221

 

Microorganisms and their environment soil, air and water; Morphological, physiological and genetic adaptations of microorganisms to their environment; Physiological adaptation of extreme halophiles and thermophiles; Nature and types of microbial interactions; Concepts of microorganisms in ecosystem; Microbial biodegradation; Microbes and ecological theory, Physiological, morphological and genetic adaptations of microorganisms to their environment; Microbial interactions; Microorganisms in natural ecosystem; The life of microorganisms in air, springs, rivers, lakes, and seas; Cycling of elements in water and sediments/air.

MCB 414: PLANT PATHOLOGY (3 Units)

Principles and concepts in plant pathology, some pathology of plants, animal and especially those present in Nigeria; The geographical distribution of the pathogens, their location, identification, morphology, life- cycles, sources of isolation, transmission and the effects on the host, aetiology, cultural characteristics and clinical manifestations of specific bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens of animals and plants, control of plant diseases.

MCB   415: PATHOGENIC MICROBIOLOGY (3 Units)

Study of some microbial pathogens of plants and animals with emphasis on those prevalent in Nigeria; the geographical distribution, isolation, identification, morphology, life cycle, source of infection transmission and the host, Ecology, clinical manifestations of specific bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens of man.

 

BIO 416: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (3 Units)

Extensive survey of literature on the genetics of bacteria; viruses; protozoa and fungi; Principles and methods of genetic analysis; Structure-function relationships in DNA as elucidated in prokaryotes; Mechanism and nature transfer in prokaryotes; Modes of genetic transfer in prokaryotes; Chemical coding and expression of genetic information; Fungi genetics, analysis of ordered asc, that is (Aspergillusnidulans); Mitotic recombination; Fine structure and mapping in fungi and other lower eukaryotes.

MCB 418: MEDICAL VIROLOGY AND TISSUE CULTURE (3 Units)

Pre-requisites: MCB 314

 

The morphology, life cycle and host-cell interactions of bacterial and animal viruses pathogenic to man and animals; Emphasis will also be placed on the virulence, type of disease produced and control measures; Regulation of lytic development and maintenance of the lysogenic state in bacteriophages; Lambda, P.22 and 14, single stranded DNA and RNA viruses; Cytopathology of animal viruses; Students will undertake laboratory practical, which will include techniques of viral cultivation and identification and determination of the nature and virulence of viruses.

ZOO 419: BASIC ENTOMOLOGY (2 Units)

Origin and phylogeny of insects; Biology of control of selected groups which are of economic importance in the tropics (Particularly in Nigeria); aspects of crops; stored products and vectors; diseases of man and his domestic animals; Insect physiology.

BCH 421: ENZYMOLOGY 1 (2 UNITS)

Pre-requisites: BCH 221

 

Classification and nomenclature (IUPAC/IUB) of enzymes; Genetics of enzymes inhibition; Introduction to allostery and regulatory enzymes; Zymogens and digestive enzymes; Lineweaveer- Burke plot; Active site of enzymes; Vitamins as coenzymes; Metal ions as cofactors; Estimation of kinetic parameter (acidity, Km, Vmax, Kl); Production, isolation, purification and characterization of enzymes, immobilized enzymes. Recent advances in enzymology.

MCB 423: ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND QUALITY CONTROL (3 Units)

Concepts of microbiology as a tool in quantitative analyses; Principles and techniques of employing microorganisms for the quantitative assay of a number of products including antibiotics; amino acids and vitamins; Estimation of microbial responses in assays; Preparation and techniques of assays; Concept of quality control; Aspects of plant and equipment sanitation; Microbiological standards and specifications food and water including effluents.

MCB   424: INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLGY (3 Units)

Pre-requisites: MCB 221

 

Bacteria, actiomycetes, yeast and moulds of industrial importance; The use of microorganisms in industrial fermentation; Mode of action and development; hybridization; Principles of sterilization, sterility tests and asepsis; Nutrition of microorganisms, formulation and optimization of media for industrial fermentation; Aspects of perimeter design operations, patents and patent law; Microbial biosynthesis of common antibiotics, screening methods employed in the search of new antibiotics; Industrial use of microorganisms in single step enzymatic processes; Students will  be expected to visit various industrial centres to familiarize the with modern microbiological techniques employed in the industries.

MCB   425: PRINCIPLES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH (3 Units)

Pre-requisites: MCB 314

 

Concepts of epidemiology and public health; Application of statistical methods to epidemiology; Nature of infection and techniques for investigating epidemics; Zoonoses; Antigenic drifts; biological products for immunization; Recommended immunization schedules; International control of infectious disease.

MCB  426: RESEARCH PROJECT (6 Units)

The student will carry out research findings into selected areas/topics of microbiological or biotechnological interest under the supervision of an academic staff. The student will undertake extensive literature review on the topic, perform experiment, produce a report and be subjected to both seminar and oral examinations.

MCB   427: PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (3 Units)

History of antibiotics and their discovery; The chemistry and properties of synthetic chemotherapeutic agents; Aspects of quality control of pharmaceutical products; Factors affecting microbial growth and deterioration of pharmaceutical products; The mode of action and assay of antimicrobial agents; Principles and mechanisms of antibiotics sensitivity and resistance with emphasis on antibiotics commonly used in Nigeria; Practical should  include discovery of new antibiotics; Susceptibility test; Quality assessment and replica plating technique; Determination of LDS, MLD50, MIC, etc.

BCH 422: INDUSTRIAL BIOCHEMISTRY (3 Units)

Pre-requisites: BCH 414, 417

 

Review of microbial physiology and genetics; Review of primary metabolic pathways, their control and application to industrial processes; Continuous culture methods, principles and application; Chemo stat and applications to industrial fermentations alcoholic, amino acid, antibiotics and other secondary metabolites; Process evaluation and development, over-production of metabolites (amino acids, taste enhancers e.g. MSG. Vitamins, toxins etc.); Methods for screening and selecting microorganisms of industrial importance; Immobilised enzymes; Induction or mutation in plants and microbes for over­production; Strain selection, development and enhancement; Gene dosage and its application in industrial processes.

 

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