Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution


PHILOSOPHY OF THE PROGRAMME

The underlying philosophy of the Department of Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution is to produce graduates equipped with appropriate knowledge and skills to make effective contribution to National development, and global community in the field of social science in general and in the sub-field of Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution.

AIMS/OBJECTIVES     

The B.Sc. Degree in Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution aims at serving a number of inter-related objectives.

  • To instill in students a sound knowledge of Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution, at local, national and international levels in different socio-cultural contexts and to involve the students in an intellectually stimulating and satisfying experience of learning and studying.
  • To provide students with a broad and well balanced theories and methods in Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution.
  • To cultivate in students, the ability to apply their knowledge and skills on Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution to the understanding and resolution of societal problems in Nigeria and elsewhere.
  • To provide students with relevant knowledge and skills from which they can proceed to further studies in special areas of Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution.
  • To instill in students an appreciation of the importance of Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution in contemporary national and global affairs
  • To develop in students a range of useful competencies for employment whether public, private or self-employment.

 

ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS

General University Admission Requirements

Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME)

  • Admission into Obong University shall be through Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examinations (UTME) conducted by the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) or Direct Entry. In addition to attaining the general required standard in UTME, candidates must satisfy the general university requirements as well as the specific School/Faculty and Programmes requirements. All admissions shall be through JAMB.
  • Candidates must possess at least five (5) credit passes in relevant subjects (Government or History, Mathematics, Economics, Geography) including English Language, at GCE O/L, WASCE, SSCE, NECO or approved equivalents at not more than 2 sittings.
  • Candidates with Teachers Grade II (TC II) with passes at credit or merit levels in conjunction with credit passes in relevant subjects at GCE, WASCE, SSCE, NECO or approved equivalents may be considered. No subject may be counted at both TC II and GCE O/L

(iv)       Candidates who wish to change their first choice to Obong University are required to:

                        i). Apply for change of Institution through JAMB and

                        ii). Obtain Obong University Application Form

  • All candidates will be required to go through the Obong University’s Screening   

 

Direct Entry

                  Candidates for Direct Entry admission must possess any of the following         qualifications:

  • Two (2) passes at GCE A/L, HSC, IJMB, JUPEB or approved equivalents in relevant subjects and at least credit passes in three (3) other subjects, including English Language at GCE (O/L), WASCE, SSCE, NECO or approved equivalents at not more than two sittings
  • Three (3) passes at GCE A/L, HSC, IJMB, JUPEB or approved equivalents in relevant subjects and at least credit passes in two (2) other subjects including English Language at GCE (O/L), WASCE, SSCE, NECO or approved equivalents at not more than two sittings.
  • Two (2) passes at merit level or above in two (2) recognized NCE, OND, HND subjects or approved equivalents and at least 3 credit passes in other subjects including English Language at GCE O/L, WASCE, SSCE, NECO or approved equivalents at not more than two sittings.
  • Two “A” level passes including Government or History, Mathematics, Economics, Geography.
  • Diploma in Public Administration and Political Science, Administration Management, Public/ Local Government Administration, Social Work, Community Development, Industrial and Labor Relations.

GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS

Students are required to pass the prescribed courses in the three (3) categories.

                  -The General Courses                   -           (GST)

                  -The Departmental Courses          -           (Core and Required)

                  -The Elective Courses

(a)               Grades obtained in all approved courses of a student’s prescribed programme, excluding audited courses, shall be used to compute the GPA.

(b)             When a student had registered for a course but the result is unavailable due to no fault of the student, no result will be recorded for that course and the student will re-register for it in the next academic year. The second registration will be treated as first attempt, provided the student formally notifies his/her Department.

(c)              Procedure for the Review of Scripts of Aggrieved Student Academic Grievances are treated on their merit. The Department runs an open door policy in addressing all manners of student’s challenges for the sake of justice and peace. The most common is examination results; the student should lodge complaints and grievances in writing to the HOD, who would process the letter and forward same to the lecturer in question. If the challenge is outside the Department, then the letter is routed to the lecturer’s HOD. In this way only the lecturer involved in teaching and examining the course alongside his/her HOD are aware of the emerging issue. Other academic grievances are usually handled by the respective lecturers with assistances of HOD and the academic advisers.

DETAILED CURRICULUM: FOUR YEAR DEGREE PROGRAMME IN PEACE STUDIES AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION

YEAR ONE: FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE

CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT

UNITS

General Courses

 

 

GST 111

Communication in English 1

2

GST 112

Logic, Philosophy and Human Existence

2

GST 113

Nigerian People & Culture

2

CDS 111

Community Development Service

1

BSM 111

Life and Teachings of Christ (The Four Gospels)

1

Compulsory Courses

 

 

PCR 111

Peace Thinking and Peace Making

2

PCR 112

Culture and Conflict Resolution

2

PCR 113

Religions in Conflict Resolution

2

Required Electives

 

 

GEO 111

Introduction to Human Geography

2

POL 111

Introduction to Political Science

2

Total

 

18

 

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT

UNITS

General Courses

 

 

GST 121

Use of Library, Study Skills and Information Communication Technology (ICT)

2

GST 122

Communication in English II

2

GST 124

Communication in French OR Arabic

2

GST 125

Citizenship Education

2

BSM121

Christian Awareness

       1

Compulsory Courses

 

 

PCR 121

Ethics in Conflict Resolution

2

PSY 121

Introduction to Psychology

2

Required Electives

 

 

ECS 121

Principles of Economics

2

SOC 121

Introduction to Sociology

2

Total

 

17

 

YEAR TWO: FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT

UNITS

General Courses

 

 

GST 212

Introduction to Computer

2

GST 214

History and Philosophy of Science

2

CDS 211

Community Development Service

1

BSM  211

Creation and Kingdom

         1

Compulsory Courses

 

 

PCR 211

Fundamental Human Rights

2

PCR 212

Strategic Studies

2

PCR 213

Peace Keeping and Conflict Resolution

2

PCR 214

International Politics of the Environment

         2       

Required Course

 

 

STA 211

Statistics for Social Science I

2

Elective Courses (Choose any One)

 

 

INR  211

Structure of International Society

2          2

POL 212

Introduction to Political Analysis

2

Total

 

18

 

SECOND SEMESTER      

COURSE

 CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT

UNITS

General Courses

 

 

GST 221

Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution

2

GST 222

Introduction to Entrepreneurial Skills

2

BSM 221

Prophets  and Wisdom Literature

        1      

Compulsory Courses

 

 

PCR 221

Nationalism, Ethnicity and Conflicts

2

PCR 222

International Organizations and Conflict Resolution

2

PCR 223

Social Alternatives

2

PCR 224

Globalization and Equity

2

PCR 225

Culture , Values and Conflict in Nigeria

2

Required Course

 

 

STA 222

Statistics for Social Sciences II

2

Elective Course

 

 

POL 222

Political Ideas

2

Total

 

19

 

YEAR THREE: FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT

UNITS

General Courses

 

 

GST 311

Application of Computer

2

GST 312

Introduction to Entrepreneurial Studies

2

Compulsory Courses

 

 

PCR 311

The World Wars

2

PCR 312

The Cold War

2

PCR 313

The Media, Information Management and Conflicts

2

PCR 314

Research Methods

2

PCR 315

International Systems

2

PCR 316

Cultism, Drugs and Conflicts I

2

Elective Courses (Choose any One)

 

 

PCR 317

Governance and Political Transition

2        2

PCR 318

Arms Control and Disarmament

2

Total

 

18

 

YEAR THREE: SECOND SEMESTER                                                                                       

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT

UNITS

Compulsory Courses

 

 

PCR 321

The World Wars

2

PCR 322

Terrorism and Global Conflicts

2

PCR 323

The Media, Information Management and Conflicts

2

PCR 324

Energy Security: Oil and Conflicts

2

PCR 325

Research Methods

2

PCR 326

Cultism, Drugs and Conflicts II

2

Elective Courses (Choose any Two)

 

 

PCR 327

Civil-Military Relations

2

PCR 328

The Military and New Technologies

2         4

PCR 329

Gender in War and Peace

2

Total

 

18

 

YEAR FOUR: FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT

UNITS

Compulsory Courses

 

 

PCR 411

Negotiations and Conflict Resolutions I

       2

PCR 412

Conflict Modelling I

       2

PCR 413

Interpersonal Conflict Resolution Skills

       2       

PCR 418

Original Project

       3

Required Electives

 

 

PCR 414

History of the Modern Middle East, 18th – 20th Centuries

2

PCR 415

Wars  and Peace in Ancient Greece and Rome

2

PCR 416

Asia-Pacific Wars

2

PCR 417

Wars of Liberation in Southern Africa

3

Total

 

18

 

YEAR FOUR: SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT

UNITS

Compulsory Courses

 

 

PCR 421

Negotiations and Conflict Resolutions II

2

PCR 422

Conflict Modelling II

2

PCR 423

Original Projects

3

Required Electives

 

 

PCR 424

Israeli-Palestinian-Arab Conflict

       3

PCR 425

Causes of American Civil War, 1815-1860

       2

PCR 426

Nigerian Civil War

       2         

PCR 427

Contemporary wars in the Middle East

       2

PCR 428

Contemporary wars in West Africa

       2

Total

 

      18

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION FOR B.Sc. PEACE STUDIES AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION

GST 111: Communication in English (2 Units)

Effective communication and writing in English, Language skills, writing of essay answers, Comprehension, Sentence construction, Outlines and paragraphs, Collection and organization of materials and logical presentation, Punctuation.

GST 112: Logic Philosophy and Human Existence (2 Units)

A brief survey of the main branches of Philosophy Symbolic Logic Special symbols in symbolic Logic-conjunction, negation, affirmation, disjunction, equivalent and conditional statements law of tort; The method of deduction using rules of inference and bi-conditionals qualification theory; Types of discourse, Nature or arguments, Validity and soundness; Techniques for evaluating arguments; Distinction between inductive and deductive inferences; etc. (Illustrations will be taken from familiar texts, Including literature materials, Novels, Law reports and newspaper publications).

GST 113: Nigerian Peoples and Culture (2 Units)

Study of Nigerian history, culture and arts in pre-colonial times, Nigerian’s perception of his world, Culture areas of Nigeria and their characteristics, Evolution of Nigeria as a political unit, Indigene/settler phenomenon, Concepts of trade, Economic self-reliance, Social justice, Individual and national development, Norms and values, Negative attitudes and conducts

 

CDS 111:      Community Development Service (1 Unit)

At the end of this course, the student should be able to: Know the basic concepts in community development; Define community and community development; explain the scope of community development; explain the following concepts:

  1. i) Felt-need; ii) Directive approach; iii) Non-directive approach; iv) Integrated approach; v) Team approach; vi) Matching-grant approach. Student should also be able to: Understand the role of community development in national development: Define development as a holistic and normative phenomenon involving everybody in the nation; Explain the importance of UNESCO’s involvement in community development; Assess community development as a socio-economic and political programme cultism and related vices), Re-orientation of moral Environmental problems.

 

BSM 111: Life and Teaching of Christ (1 Unit)

A study of the historical development and foundations of the four Gospels, with special focus on themes and theological perspectives unique to each and on the distinctive approaches of the four evangelists to the life, message death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

PCR 111: Peace Thinking and Peace Making (2 Units)

This course covers the most significant developments in the history of peace thinking, peace theory and the development of philosophies of peace. Based on this overview, the course then focuses on understanding how peace theory was converted into forms of peace practice through the development of processes of non-violent conflict resolution.

PCR 112: Culture and Conflict Resolution (2 Units)

This course provides a critical perspective on the field of conflict resolution by exploring the cultural dimensions of conflict and the applicability of conflict resolution methods in a range of cultural context. Using case studies and perspectives from the field of anthropology, the limitations of current conflict resolutions models are explored and new ways forward are considered.

PCR 113: Religions in Conflict Resolution (2 Units)

This course introduces the role that religion plays in both fostering and resolving conflict, using case studies from local, national and international levels. It analyses specific conflicts with a religious dimension, and examine broader relationships, for example between Islam and the West. The course includes case studies where the religious differences have been successfully reconciled.

GEO 111: Introduction to Human Geography (2 Units)

World population: its distribution and patterns of growth/demographic characteristics of selected populations. Human settlements: evolution, pattern and functions; Inter-relationship between urban and rural settlement; Environmental resources: the concept of resources, types of resources and their global distribution: relationship between resources and tertiary activities: impact of human activities on the environment at varying level of technology and population densities. The role of movement: the flow of people, goods, energy and ideas.

POL 111: Introduction to Political Science (2 Units)

This course introduces the student to the nature of politics and how it is played. It emphasizes the issues of political discourse and practice. It also introduces students to the language and basic concept of politics. The student is later introduced to methods of political science research.

GST 121: Use of Library, Study Skills and Information Communication Technology (ICT) (2 Units)

Brief history of libraries, Library and education, University libraries and other types of libraries, Study skills (reference services); Types of library materials, using library resources including e-learning, e-materials; etc., understanding library catalogues (card, OPAC, etc.) and classification, Copyright and its \implications, Database resources, Bibliographic citations and referencing. Development of modern ICT, Hardware technology Software technology, input devices, Storage devices, Output devices, Communication and internet services, Word processing skills (typing, etc.).

GST 122: Communication in English II (2 Units)

Logical presentation of papers, Phonetics, Instruction on lexis, Art of public speaking and oral communication, Figures of speech, Précis, Report writing.

GST 124: Communication in French (2 Units)

Introduction to French, Alphabets and numeric for effective communication (written and oral), Conjugation and simple sentence construction based on communication approach, Sentence construction, Comprehension and reading of simple texts.

OR

 GST 124: Communication in Arabic (2 Units)

Introduction to Arabic alphabets and writing systems; Elementary conversational drills, Basic reading skills, Sentence construction in Arabic.

GST 125: Citizenship Education (2 Units)

Citizenship Education as a general study course aims at equipping students with information on their rights, duties and obligations as citizen to themselves, their neighbors and community or nation as a whole. It also includes discussions and some current medical/health, environment and equips students with some means of preventing, controlling and overcoming the impediments to these.

BSM 121:      Christian Awareness (1 Unit)

A study of the New Testament challenge to wholeness based on the command to love God, self, and others. Contemporary helps and hindrances to that quest examined in the light of ecumenical developments

PCR 121:  Ethics in Conflict Resolution (2 Units)

This course develops, extends and deepens understanding of a central dimension to conflict resolution and peace studies. Applied ethics is the application of ethical reasoning to specific areas of practical concern, examines difficult questions, dilemmas and controversies partly by analysis, evaluation and discussion of relevant literatures, but also by development and interchange of your personal idea and response.

PSY 121: Introduction to Psychology (2 Units)

Psycho-biological basis of behavior. Survey of the major topics, theories and research results of contemporary psychology.

ECS 121: Principles of Economics II (Macro) (2 Units)

This course deals with some basic principles of Macroeconomics theory which includes tools for macro-economic analysis, Measure of dispersion, Linear regression, The Labor market-demand, supply of money, Money value and price index, inflation effects, trends and control, taxes and taxation, budget and sources of government revenue elementary theory of income determination, circular flow of income in a closed economy, equilibrium, propensities and the multiplier.

SOC 111:    Introduction to Sociology (2 Units)                   

Introductory analysis and description of social structure and dynamics of human society:  field of sociology: sociology and other social sciences, methods and Techniques of Scientific inquiry. Basic concepts and principles of Sociology: social structure and social institutions: founding fathers of sociology: problems of social organizations, population and society, collective behaviors: social movements and ideologies, uses and relevance of social structure.

GST 212:       Introduction to Computer (2 Units)

History of Computer Science and their generations; Role and Applications of Computer Science in Information and Communication Technology; Computer hardware, functional Components; Modern Input/outcome units. Basic elements of a microcomputer; Block diagram, data/ instruction flow, control flow, functions, operating principles and examples; Software types, packages and applications; Functional components of computer, characteristics of a computer.

GST 214: History and Philosophy of Science (2 Units)

Man – his origin and nature, Man and his cosmic environment, Scientific methodology, Science and technology in the society and service of man, Renewable and non-renewable resources – man and his energy resources, Environmental effects of chemical plastics, Textiles, Wastes and other material, Chemical and radiochemical hazards; Introduction to the various areas of science and technology; Elements of environmental studies.

CDS 211:       Community Development Service (1 Unit)

At the end of this course, the student should be able to: Comprehend basic principles and philosophies of community development: Define the principle of felt-need; Explain the principle of democracy and community work; Explain the concept of the spirit of community work; Examine the limitation of the government to provide for all the needs. Student should also be able to: Know the roles of community development workers; Define community development worker; Explain the role of the community development worker as a guide; Explain the community development worker as a social therapist, etc.

N/B:

Each Student should identify and carry out individual/ group project that would impact on the host community.

BSM 211: Creation and Kingdom (1 Unit)

An examination of the history of the Church from its earliest beginnings in Palestine through the Second Vatican Council. All major and significant episodes of the history of the Church are covered, with more in-depth study of the Crusades and the Protestant Reformation. Students are also provided some familiarity with Christian thinkers who have made significant contributions to Church doctrine and theology

PCR 211: Fundamental Human Rights (2 Units)                          

This course develops understanding of the values and norms underlying the concept of universal human rights and the issues raised in promoting human rights in contemporary society. It includes examination of instances where the rights of different individuals appear to clash or where different rights appear to be in contradiction. It explores the limits of the ‘rights’ discourse (for example, the rights of the unborn, minority rights, animal rights), a review of the international discourse on human rights and the effectiveness of international regimes set up to protect or promote human rights.

PCR 212: Strategic Studies (2 Units)

This course examines the nature of security and the evolution of military technology and warfare, analyzing the dynamics of such phenomena as militarization and arms proliferation.

PCR 213: Peace Keeping and Conflict Resolution (2 Units)

This course examines how the AU, ECOWAS, EU, UN, through peace keeping, contributes to international peace and security. It explores the extent to which UN intervention has become possible and desirable in the ‘new world order’.

PCR 214: International Policies of the Environment (2 Units)

This course concerns the international political processes that have developed in response to international environmental problems. It includes those that are intrinsically global (such as ozone depletion); those that arise throughout large areas of the world (such as pollution by toxic waste); and those that present problems in the international management of global commons (such as the high seas or Antarctica). It examines the emergence of the environment as an important issue in international politics and the nature and effectiveness of international responses to key environmental issues.

INR 211: Structure of International Society (2 Units)

The major historical, intellectual and sociological developments which have shaped relations between nations, particularly the industrial and technological revolution; the spread of nationalism; the breakup of the European empires and the rise of the superpowers

POL 212: Introduction to Political Analysis (2 Units)

The nature of politics, political systems and the structure of government, political representation institutions of different regimes. The relationship between regime types and political efficiency, citizen’s participation and political culture.

STA 211 & 222: Introduction to Statistics for Social Sciences I & II (2-2 Units)

The nature of statistics, statistical inquiries, forms and design, the role of statistics and basic concepts in statistics

GST 221: Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution (2 Units)

Basic Concepts in peace studies and conflict resolution, Peace as vehicle of unity and development, Conflict issues, Types of conflict, e.g. Ethnic/religious/political/economic conflicts, Root causes of conflicts and violence in Africa, Indigene/settler phenomenon, Peace – building, Management of conflict and security; Elements of peace studies and conflict resolution, Developing a culture of peace, Peace mediation and peace-keeping, Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR); Dialogue/arbitration in conflict resolution, Role of international organizations in conflict resolution, e.g. ECOWAS, African Union, United Nations, etc.

GST 222: Introduction to Entrepreneurial Skills (2 Units)

Introduction to entrepreneurship and new venture creation; Entrepreneurship in theory and practice; Introduction The opportunity, Forms of business, Staffing, Marketing and the new venture; Determining capital requirements, raising capital; Financial planning and management; Starting a new business, Feasibility studies; Innovation; Legal Issues; Insurance and environmental considerations; Possible business opportunities in Nigeria.

PCR 221: Nationalism, Ethnicity and Conflicts (2 Units) 

This course introduces the rise of nationalism as a key form of political identity in the modern world. It examines competing theories of nationalism and ethnicity, conceptualizing the problems dealt with in case-study form; it also examines how extreme forms of nationalism are capable of generating destructive inter-group conflicts, illustrated by examples from the North and the South.

PCR 222: International Organizations and Conflict Resolution (2 Units)

This course examines the role of law and organizations in international affairs and in the promotion of a just and peaceful global society. It includes detailed examination of the work of institutions such as the International Court of Justice and the role of regional organizations in peace and security issues.

PCR 223: Social Alternatives (2 Units)

This course explores the history and significance of utopian thinking and the main ways in which it has been criticized. Case studies are used to illustrate attempts to establish utopian communities in different historical and geographical contexts. The case studies then provide the base for thematic comparison of communities on topics such as the relationships between individuals and communities and between communities and the wider society; education of children, decision-making processes, ideals and practices. The course concludes with an evaluation of the successes and failures of intentional communities as attempts to progress towards more peaceful ways of living.

PCR 224: Globalisation and Equity (2 Units)

The effects of globalisation are different for the poor South and the rich North. It examines the phenomenon of globalisation from competing perspectives, looking at the policies of governments which try to change or control it.

PCR 225: Culture, Values and Conflicts in Nigeria (2 Units)

The course will examine the major cultural groups and their social values; compare and contrast them and areas of conflict.

POL 222: Political Ideas (2 Units)

Introduction to major political ideas in their historical context. Emphasis should be placed on concepts like Monarchism, Liberalism, Democracy, Socialism, Fascism, Anarchism, etc.

GST 311: Application of Computer (2 Units)

Introduction to personal computer applications; Overview of basic computer hardware and system software concepts; Projects include using various application software packages' such as: word processing, spreadsheets, electronic e-mail, and computer network browsers.

GST 312: Introduction to Entrepreneurship Studies (2 Units)

Some of the ventures to be focused upon include the following:  Soap/Detergent; Tooth brushes and Tooth paste making; Photography; Brick, nails, screws making; Dyeing/Textile blocks paste making; Rope making; Plumbing; Vulcanizing; Brewing; Glassware production/Ceramic, production; Paper production; Water treatment/Conditioning/Packaging; Food processing/packaging/preservation; Metal working/Fabrication – Steel and aluminum door and windows; Training industry; Vegetable oil/and Salt extractions; Fisheries/Aquaculture; Refrigeration/Air conditioning; Plastic making; Farming (crop); Domestic Electrical wiring; Radio/TV repairs; Carving; Weaving; Brick laying/making; Bakery; Tailoring; Iron welding; Building drawing; Carpentry; Leather tanning; Interior decoration; Printing; Animal husbandry (Poultry, Piggery, Goat etc.); Metal Craft – Blacksmith, Tinsmith etc.; Sanitary wares; Vehicle maintenance; Bookkeeping

PCR 311 & 321: The World Wars I & II (2 Units)

The causes, theatres of engagements, the countries involved, the duration, their resolution and impacts.

PCR 312:  The Cold War (2 Units)

The cause, the countries involved the highlights, the resolution and impacts. This course uses three key issues in international relations to explore the major processes and trends shaping international affairs between 1945 and 1991. The components build upon and inform each other. Thus the history of the Cold War informs the discussion of both the development of nuclear weapons and nuclear strategy and foreign policy; using historical examples to illustrate ideas and principles within the context of their evolution.

PCR 313 & 323 – The Media, Information Management and Conflicts I & II (2 – 2 – Units)

The role of the media in peace and conflict situations; global networks, (CNN, BBC. Sky etc.), Ownership and Control, Internet and information dissemination, propaganda in war and peace time.

PCR 314: Research Methods I (2 Units)

Scientific research processes, proposal writing, data collection, presentation and analysis.

PCR 315: International Systems (2 Units)

Defines an international system, its components, processes and structure; introduces key terms and concept of international relations theory and links them together in a unified cognitive map. Two basic structural conditions of the international system – anarchy and hierarchy are analyzed. Explores the two major examples of structural change in the Asia-Pacific region: hegemonic change and globalization.

PCR 316 & 326: Drugs, Cultism and Conflicts I & II (2 – 2- Units)

Cultism (local and international) origins, growth, characteristics and activities; Global Narcotics trade: networks, regions, routes and causes, smuggling, foreign policy issues.

PCR 317: Governance and Political Transitions (2 Units)

Compares and contrasts the patterns of political transitions in China and Russia by examining political legitimacy, political change and regional security.

PCR 318: Arms Control and Disarmament (2 Units)

This course examines the theory and history of arms control and disarmament and analyses the problems and opportunities of arms control following the end of the Cold War.

PCR 322: Terrorism and Global Conflicts (2 Units)

Reviews and discusses issues concerning global development and its relationship to conflict and terrorism.  It focuses on specific topics from empirical events and ways of resolution, the course also seeks to examine the root causes of terrorism and ways that states can mitigate this threat.

PCR 324: Energy Security: Oil and Conflicts (2 Units)

Describe the global energy concerns by analyzing the current state of affairs with respect to supplies, access and transportation and reviewing anticipated trends. Examines the cultural, political, military, economic and social implications and explore the best responses to the challenge that exist.

PCR 325: Research Methods II (2 Units)

Research designs, questionnaire designs, reference styles, report writing and documentation.

PCR 327: Civil-Military Relations (2 Units)

Examines the fundamental components of civil-military relations within the context of the modern nation-state; The course will address various aspects of civil and military authority including the subordination of the military to civilian authority and the role of civilian governments and military institutions in both external and internal security issues.

PCR 328: The Military and New Technologies (2 Units)

The course examines changes over time in the attitude of the military toward new technology and analyzes competing explanations, including concepts from Science Studies, for these changes. The Course concludes with an analysis of the so called “Revolution in Military Affairs’’. Readings include John Ellis; This Social History of the Machine Gun and Steven Rosen, Winning the Next War.

PCR 329: Gender in War and Peace (2 Units)

Gender issues and convention in wars; the relevance of gender to nationalism, conflict and war, association of hostility, aggression, and bloodshed with masculinity--and conciliation and peace-seeking with female attributes; images of motherhood; the course examines works in several disciplines and media and evaluates generalizations that link gender, nationalism, and war.

PCR 411 & PCR 421: Negotiations and Conflict Resolutions I & II (2 – 2 - Units)

This Course examines the nature of conflict and the potential for negotiated settlements. It provides a framework for understanding the dynamic nature of social conflict and peace building processes. The session also introduces basic requirements for developing successful negotiating strategies. Interactive learning approaches, using lectures, discussions, exercises and simulations to build personal capacities for successful negotiations.

PCR 412 & 422 - Conflict Modeling I & II (2 – 2- Units)

Students are expected to build a model of conflict from several empirical cases given.

PCR 413: Interpersonal Conflict Resolution Skills (2 Units)

Enhanced communication and rapport-building skills to interact more effectively and solve problems creatively. A foundational workshop that emphasizes reflective listening, problem solving, assertion and managing conflicts among needs and values; Includes theory, demonstration, skill practice and critiques, designed to have immediate and wide applicability in interpersonal and group settings.

PCR 414: History of the Modern Middle East, 18TH-20TH Centuries (2 Units)

This course surveys the history of the modern Middle East. While moving chronologically through the past three centuries, the course emphasizes critical analytical themes of political, social, economic and cultural history. Topics will include; the ottoman imperial state and .provincial history, the growing impact of the west, the historical transformation of economy and trade, ethics and religious minorities and internal reforms in the 18th and 19th centuries; European colonialism, the rise of nationalism, the emergence of the nation state throughout the Middle East and the ongoing struggle over its character in the 20th century; The course also discusses the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Middle East as an arena of geopolitics.

PCR 415: Wars and Peace in Greece and Rome (2 Units)

In ancient Greece and Rome, government did little besides waging war and raising taxes. Culture focused on war, warriors gloried in battle and civilians tried to get out of the way. This Course surveys the impact of war and the rarity of peace in the ancient world. Topics include; “why war?” the face of battle; leadership strategy, operations and tactics; women and war; intelligence and information gathering; diplomacy and peacemaking; militarism; war and slavery; the archaeology of warfare.

PCR 416: The Asia–Pacific War (2 Units)

This Course seeks to enhance students’ familiarity with the history of wars in the pacific; their understanding of the differences, tensions and complicities between history and memory in contemporary global society; and their ability to formulate and express historical arguments.

PCR 417:       Wars of Liberation in Southern Africa (3 Units)

This course surveys the various liberation movements and struggles in southern African countries such as South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Namibia; the history, the dimensions of the struggle, the actors, the role of the OAU, the frontline states, Nigeria and the international community.

PCR 423:  Original Project (6 Units)

This is designed to examine the overall idea of a prospecting graduate in order to test the ability of handling an academic research work, and the ability to develop such in accordance with the research procedures under the supervision of a Lecturer. Students are required to present two (2) topics of his or her choice in the area of his or her interest, on which one (1) will be approved through the Departmental Board. The Students will be tested and examine internally on his or her consistency in line with standardized format of project writing; Oral questions to examine his or her understanding of the related concepts and literatures on the topic so chosen. The University shall arrange for External Examiner from other Institutions of her choice whom may range from the rank of Professor, or Associate Professor, or a Senior Lecturer. Students are graded by the External Examiner depending on their performances in response to questions during the defense panel.

 

PCR 424: Israeli-Palestinian-Arab Conflict (3 Units)

This course surveys the history of the Palestine in the nineteenth and twentieth century’s, the emergence of the state of Israel in 1948 and the ongoing Israel-Palestinian struggle over this territory. The Course covers such themes as society and economy; political, religious and local identities. Western involvement in the holy land; the birth of the Zionist movement as well as the local Palestinian – Arab movement: State building: the 1948 war and the creation of the Palestinian refugee problem; the 1967 war; the Palestinian Intifada(s); the role of gender in the conflict and the structure and culture of occupation.

PCR 425: Causes of the American Civil War, 1815 – 1860 (2 Units)

A study of the simultaneous growth and growing-apart of the United States in the years from the end of world war of 1812 to the beginning of the civil war. It examines the political, social, economic and cultural history of this era in order to understand why the United States became a vast, successful, transcontinental republic. It studies the same history to understand why it simultaneously split apart and prepared to launch a civil war that would ultimately cost more than 600,000 lives.

PCR 426: Nigerian Civil War (2 Units)

The causes, the outbreak, the combat, role of international community and the resolution of the Nigerian Civil War 1967 – 1970

PCR 427: Contemporary Wars in the Middle East (2 Units)

History of contemporary wars in Middle East such as Iraq – Iran; Iraq – Allied forces, the issues, the role of international agencies and community, the impacts, etc.

PCR 428: Contemporary Wars in West Africa (2 Units)

History of contemporary wards in West Africa such as the civil war in Liberia, Sierra-Leone, Cote-Devoir and the role of ECOWAS and the international Community.

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